Immunity of State Owned Non-Commercial Ships and Vessel Protection Detachments in the Foreign Criminal Jurisdiction

Nikhilesh Nikhilesh

Abstract


This article studying the issue of sovereign immunity of ships and vessel protection detachments from criminal jurisdiction of foreign courts. The issue immunity of ships from foreign criminal jurisdiction can be understand from Schooner Exchange case onwards. In the initial stages the courts were given absolute immunity of the government ships in the foreign jurisdiction. Later on the courts, jurists and states classified the immunity in two heads such as personal immunity and functional immunity. Immunity not only given to the troika but also to the other officials engaged in the sovereign functions for their respective states with the exception of universal crimes. The status of the warships, government non commercial ships under the law of the sea convention is analysing.  At the end the Article considering whether functional immunity applicable to the vessel protection detachments appointed by the states to protect their ship from piracy in accordance with the IMO guidelines.


Keywords


Criminal Jurisdiction; Immunity; Sovereign Immunity; Vessel Protection Detachments; Warships

Full Text:

PDF

References


Andrea Bianchi (1999). Immunity versus Human Rights: The Pinochet Case. European Journal of International Law, 10, 237–277.

Andrew Sanger (2013). Immunity of State Officials from the Criminal Jurisdiction of A Foreign State. International and Comparative Law Quarterly 62 (1), 193-224.

B.M. Dimri (2013): The Arrest of Argentine Warship ‘ARA Libertad’: Revisiting International Law Governing Warships, Sovereign Immunity, and Naval Diplomatic Roles, Journal of Defence Studies, 7(3), 97-124.

Caldwel and Graham (2012). Private Security and Armed Military Guards: Minimising State Lability in the Fight against Maritime Piracy. RUSI Journal 157(5),16–20.

Dapo Akande and Sangeeta Shah, (2011). Immunities of State Officials, International Crimes, and Foreign Domestic Courts. European Journal of International Law, 21, 815–852.

Dapo Akande,( 2004). International Law Immunities and The International Criminal Court. The American Journal of International Law 98 ( 3), 407-433.

Djibril Moudachirou (2015). Does a Sovereign State Immunity Say More than We Think? ITLOS’s Decision in ARA LIBERTAD Case. Journal of Law, Policy and Globalization, 37 (6).

Edward, C.O. (2018). Jurisdictional Immunities of States and International Organizations, Oxford University Press, Oxford.

Gian Maria Farnelli (2015). Vessel Protection Detachments and Maritime Security: An Evaluation of Four Years of Italian Practice. MarSafeLaw Journal, 1,16-32.

Gold, E. (1986). The future of maritime transit. In International Navigation: Rocks and Shoals Ahead: A workshop of the Law of the Sea Institute, pp. 237-259.

Huang Huikang, (2014). On Immunity of State Officials from Foreign Criminal Jurisdiction, Chinese Journal of International Law, 13, 1–11.

Kolodkin, R. A. (2010). Second Report on Immunity of State Officials from Foreign Criminal Jurisdiction, Un Doc. A/CN, 4-631.

Kolodkin, R. A. (2008). Preliminary Report on Immunity of State Officials from Foreign Criminal Jurisdiction, UN Doc. A/CN, 4, 601. Para-107.

Kraska, J. (2013). The “ARA Libertad”(Argentina v. Ghana). American Journal of International Law, 107(2), 404-410.

Marten Zwanenburg (2012). Military Vessel Protection Detachments: The Experience of the Netherlands. MarSafeLaw Journal, 51, 97-98.

McDorman, T. L. (2015). 4 Sovereign Immune Vessels: Immunities, Responsibilities and Exemptions. In Jurisdiction over Ships (pp. 82-102). Brill Nijhoff.

Neil Boister (2002). The ICJ in the Belgian Arrest Warrant Case: Arresting the Development of International Criminal Law. Journal of Conflict and Security Law, 7 (2), 293–314.

Note (1965). Sovereign Immunity Waiver and Execution: Arguments from Continental Jurisprudence, Yale Law Journal 74 (5), 887-918.

Ramona Pedretti (2014). Immunity of heads of state and state officials for international crimes, Martinus Nijhoff Publishers, Chicago.

Renée de Nevers (2015). Sovereignty at Sea: States and Security in the Maritime Domain, Security Studies. 24(4), 597-630.

Reuker, C. (2016). Combating piracy-Legal and technical solutions. In Maritime Areas: Control and Prevention of Illegal Traffics at Sea, Gomylex.

Riccardo Pisillo Mazzeschi, (2015). The functional immunity of State officials from foreign jurisdiction: A critique of the traditional theories. Questions of International Law, 17 , 3-31.

Zachary Douglas, (2012). State Immunity for the Acts of State Officials. British Yearbook of International Law, 82 (1), 281–348.

World Wide Web:

The Fletcher School of Law, Law of the Sea, A policy Primer, Available from: ., [Accessed: 20 January 2020].

International Law Commission. (2008). Preliminary report on immunity of State officials from foreign criminal jurisdiction By Roman Anatolevich Kolodkin, Special Rapporteur (Vol. 35715). Available from: [Accessed: 24 January 2020].

International Law Commission. (2008). Second report on the immunity of State officials from foreign criminal jurisdiction. By Concepción Escobar Hernández, Special Rapporteur,A/CN.4/661, Retrieved from www.icj-cij.org.

NML Capital Ltd. v Republic of Argentina, Available from:< https://jusmundi.com/en/document/decision/en-the-ara-libertad-arbitration-argentina-v-ghana-judgment-of-the-supreme-court-of-ghana-thursday-20th-june-2013,> [Accessed: 27 June 2020].

Thomas M Jopling (2009). The Growing Threat of Piracy to Regional and Global Security. NATO Doc. 023 CDS 09 E). Available from: [Accessed: 30 June 2020].

EU Naval Force – Somalia Operation Atalanta, Operation Atalanta Warship ITS Euro Escorts World Food Programme Vessel Eunavfor. Available from:< http://eunavfor.eu/operation-atalanta-warship-its-euro-escorts-world-food-programme-vessel/ > [Accessed: 24 January 2020].

Piracy - Robbery or Illegal Violence at Sea. Available from: < http://www.gard.no> [Accessed: 25 April 2020]; Roger L. Phillips (2012).

Use of Private Guards and VPDs Remains Controversial. Available from: [Accessed: 25 April 2020].

Case laws

Arrest Warrant of 11 April 2000 (Democratic Republic of the Congo v. Belgium), Judgment, I.C.J. Reports 2002, p. 3 at para. 59.

Aziz v Republic of Yemen CA (Bailii, [2005] EWCA Civ 745.

Belhas v. Ya'alon, 515 F. 3d 1279 (DC Cir. 2008.

Case concerning Certain Questions of Mutual Assistance in Criminal Matters (Djibouti v. France) (Merits) [2008] ICJ Rep 177, para. 61.

Chuidian v. Philippine Nat'l Bank, 912 F.2d 1095 (9th Cir. 1990).

Jurisdictional Immunities of the State (Germany v. Italy, Judgment, I.C.J. Reports 2012, Dissenting opinion of Judge Cançado Trindade, para. 181. See, in general, para. 178 ff.

Libra Bank Ltd. v. Banco Nacional de Costa Rica, S.A., 676 F.2d 47,49 (2d Cir. 1982).

Pinochet No. 3 (1999). International Legal Materials, 38, p. 580, at p. 594.

Propend Fin. Pty Ltd v. Sing (C.A. 1997) (Eng.), Ill ILR 611.

Prosecutor v. Blaskic, IT-95-14-AR 108.

Quamar, S.A. v. Del Monte Fresh Produce N.A., Inc., 179 F.3d 1279, 1292 (11th Cir. 1999).

Societe Anonyme des Chemins de Fer Liegeois-Luxembourgeois v. Etat Neerlandais,

The “ARA Libertad” Case (Argentina v. Ghana) List of cases: No. 20.

The Italian Republic v. The Republic of India, PCA Case No. 2015-28 , (July 20, 2020).

The Parlement Belge, [1874– 1880] All ER Rep 104.

The Schooner Exchange v. McFaddon, 11 U.S. 116, 7 Cranch 116 (1812)




DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.20956/halrev.v6i3.2425

Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.




Hasanuddin Law Review (ISSN Online: 2442-9899 | ISSN Print: 2442-9880) is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License. Preserved in LOCKSS, based at Stanford University Libraries, United Kingdom, through PKP Private LOCKSS Network program.
 
Indexing and Abstracting:
 
        
 
View full indexing services.