[ Abstract ]

Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) has been the focus of debate in recent years. The research aimed at analyzing the lead content in the hair of the children with ASD and its correlation with ASD symptom severity level.  This was a cross sectional research conducted from September 2016 to January 2017 on 80 children comprising 40 ASD dan 40 non ASD children who were treated in the children’s polyclinic of Wahidin Sudirohusodo Central General Hospital. Data were derived from history taking, physical examination, Denver II screening, M-CHAT R/F, DSM V, CARS, the hair lead content examination using ICP-MS method. ASD degree was determined using CARS score, then the lead contents were compared between both groups. The research result indicates that the lead content in the hair of the children with ASD (mean 3,33µg/g) is no significant difference than non ASD children (mean 4.02 μg/g), with the value of p=0.371 (p> 0.05). The mean value of the lead content on ASD with mild-moderate degree is 2.21 μg/g and severe ASD is 3.71 μg/g, with the value of p=0.332 (p> 0,05). There is no significant correlation between lead content and CARS scores with a correlation coefficient 0,124 and the value of p=0.446 (p> 0.05). There is no significant difference in the frequency of subjects living in urban environment between both groups with p=0.762, OR 1.202, CI (0.365-3.955). There is no significant difference in the frequency of subjects living in factory environment between both groups with p=0.108, OR 6.882, CI (0.789-60.060). Urban and factory environment’s pollution are not a risk factor of ASD.

 

Keywords:  Autism Spectrum Disorders, CARS, lead, hair analysis



[ Abstrak ]

Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) telah menjadi fokus perdebatan dalam beberapa tahun terakhir. Penelitian ini bertujuan menganalisis kadar timbal rambut pada anak ASD dan korelasinya dengan tingkat keparahan gejala ASD.Penelitian ini merupakan jenis penelitian potong lintang. Penelitian dilakukan pada bulan September 2016-Januari 2017 terhadap 80 anak yang terdiri atas 40 anak dengan ASD dan 40 bukan ASD yang berobat di poliklinik anak RSUP dr. Wahidin Sudirohusodo. Data berasal dari anamnesis, pemeriksaan fisis, skriningdenver II, M-CHAT-R/F dan DSM V, CARS dan pemeriksaan kadar timbal rambut dengan metode ICP-MS. Penentuan derajat ASD berdasarkan skor CARS. Kemudian kadar timbal antara kedua kelompok dibandingkan.Hasil penelitian menunjukan bahwa kadar timbal dalam rambut anak ASD (mean 3,33 µg/g) tidak berbeda bermakna dibandingkan bukan ASD (mean 4,02 µg/g), dengan nilai p=0,371 (p>0,05). Nilai rerata kadar timbal pada ASD derajat ringan-sedang yaitu 2,21 µg/g dan ASD berat yaitu 3,71 µg/g, dengan nilai p=0,332 (p>0,05). Tidak ada korelasi yang signifikan antara kadar timbal rambut dan skor CARS dengan koefisien korelasi 0,124 dan nilai p=0,446 (p>0,05). Tidak ada perbedaan bermakna frekuensi subyek yang tinggal di lingkungan perkotaan antara kedua kelompok dengan nilai p=0.762, OR 1.202, CI (0.365-3.955). Tidak ada perbedaan bermakna frekuensi subyek yang tinggal di lingkungan pabrik antara kedua kelompok dengan nilai p=0.108, OR 6.882, CI (0.789-60.060). Paparan polusi di lingkungan perkotaan dan lingkungan pabrik bukan merupakan faktor risiko kejadian ASD.

 

Kata kunci: Autism spectrum disorders, CARS, timbal, analisis rambut